Thursday, October 8, 2015

Workshop Centres          Pune, Ahmedabad, Bhopal, Hyderabad
Trainer                               Prof.  Jack Wood and Anubha Maurya Walia
Programme Name           Leadership: depth psychology and understanding the unconscious and irrational forces in managerial decision-making
Workshop Description and Session Plan Breakup :

There are limits to the exercise of rationality in leadership and management.  We shall begin to explore together a more depth those limits as well as some fundamental aspects of leadership, followership, teamwork and motivation. In these three workshop sessions we’ll focus on a detailed exploration of behaviour—both your own and that of others—and how decision-making is actually done in the small group.  

This workshop will explore the fundamental processes that occur in groups and teams. The session uses the overt “content” of working on a specific problem-solving situation as a means to focus on the essential covert “process” of the team. Video may be used as a means to review both individual leadership styles and patterns of group behaviour.
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Dear Friends

I feel great and thanks everyone for there appreciate and love showered over for my research paper in Leadership and Followership, which has acclaimed great appreciation and published in ISTD journal, the very same was highlighted in ISTD Convention 20-21 Jan 2012 in Kolkata too and with the demand from my friends, near and dear once, pleasure to put it on my blog.

Wise leaders know that it is not an effortless task to magnetize and then retain great employees but tough task is to build leaders. Sometimes even seniors keep discussing where we should we start from to develop leaders?” There is a great belief that leaders grow leaders and interestingly these leaders were followers some point of time. This statement if you read carefully, you will realize the importance of followers – we followed our parents, gurus, mentors, teachers or our admirers and enhanced our own leadership skills.  There is no wrong to say that at some point of time we all were followers. If an organization is going to build a succession effort which includes a robust leader development approach, you begin by finding your best leaders. Interesting is under the centralization system, subordinates follows their boss or super boss and its not surprising that Value, Belief, Behaviors describe effective leaders  also describe followers too.
What we want our future leaders to be like, at their core, to behave like, to be able to do, and how their priorities should change as they move from individual contributor, to team leader or first level supervisor or senior leader in an organization and by aligning personal goal to corporate goal. 
Lets understand “What” leaders focus on following growing leaders and the answer is “The 3Cs”—Confidence, Care and Coach (i.e how leaders use their own effective time for nurturing his/her people), was the analysis implies all the leaders practicing and showing Confidence, Care and Coach, creates followers and able to align organization goal to self goal.
Research Methodology: 
This paper is the brief research project which was carried out after research on primary data. The study involved exploring various current leaders and their subordinates also how subordinates imitates there leaders in service . Assessment was individually administered in the form of standard questionnaire and responses were elicited. 
In current study individuals was measured on three criteria: 
Coach (how much seniors work with their subordinates and invest their time on them), 
Care (Understanding the concern and resolving it), 
Confidence (Positive approach and relying on own team members).

A very problem you create when you begin with the premise that leaders grow leaders — does the senior leader make the time to do the thought work it requires to put together a good leader development effort? It was observed, the best leaders do this and in-fact those carry it passionately has seen great results from his/her team. The next important aspect gets highlighted, why we need to focus on Coach when most people including leaders are concerned about Competency, Character, Ability, which was also the part of research? It was observed in the experience of many, the most in implementing leadership development turns out to be Coach—how leaders use their time, and particularly is one of their key responsibilities—growing other leaders i.e nurturing them for next higher role by making them follow you. Interesting is there can be no leader without followers. The effort on leadership development efforts that produce the best leaders need senior leaders not only to plan the initiative, but also to take an active part as coaches, mentors or as examples. Interesting question again arises, how can we differentiate between Mentor and Coach? 
For Coach both role has to be played by leader for developing leader and that to with Care. The basic difference between them is:
Under the said state, when we ask a question, would you like to become follower?  and the answer is why anyone would want to be follower, but with Coach, existing leaders don’t specify the same to  his subordinates, it is subordinate start following his leader for the time his leader invest on him. Evolutionary psychology hypothesis that people follow because the benefit of doing so outweigh the cost of going it alone or fighting to become the leader of a group. The famous Milgram experiments of 1950 demonstrated that people follow orders. Coaching doesn’t only means guiding but also showing direction to people with care approach. 
A lot of leaders are uncomfortable with the word “Care.” Does a manager really have to care about subordinates or followers to get them to do the job they are paid to do? The level of care is lacking because of their limited relationship with subordinates as sometimes find them difficult to engage. It was evaluated if we engage subordinates with care, high effort, enthusiasm, energy gets reflected for performance and drive them to achieve results. Un-care subordinates are just keep on doing task in hand rather than showing their own capability, skills and creativity.
Employees’ shows great performance when likely cared deeply about you and your success. Team / subordinates were probably never more motivated and dedicated in entire career and start following own Boss / seniors when care is shown. If you have felt dedicated and motivated, you can most likely pass on the same feelings to your peers and the people who reports to you.
After discussion with senior employees cum leaders, we identified following suggestion which can will help to demonstrate that you really do care about people or can be used to show care for own people.
·         Listen and understand concerns of people : Indirectly tell your employees you are concerned for them. Elton Mayo - “Human Relations” approach (to 1950’s). Mayo’s views lead to the construction of manager as a leader focuses on listening and understanding concern of subordinates.
·         Ongoing constructive feedback : If you really care about someone, you give them constructive feedback–both positive and negative comments on continuous basis. Act as a coach.
·         Acknowledge the greatness within your employees :  Everyone is capable of accomplishing extraordinary tasks. Part of the role of the leader believes that their people are capable of doing great things. When you believe in people, the results are very positive.
·         Identify Creativity intentions : People usually have positive intentions for any idea they suggest, even if the idea doesn’t work. Managers who care about their people look for their positive intentions rather than what went wrong or what is wrong. Everyone makes mistakes. Accept creative idea and look for the opportunity for improving when things go wrong.
·         Support peoples growth and development on ongoing basis : If you really do care about someone, you want the very best for that person. This means providing him or her with an opportunity to grow. Although this initially appears to be a win-lose scenario, with the employee winning and the manager losing or vice-versa, ultimately has resulted in a win-win situation. 
Another perspective is, it’s much easier to give someone a challenging assignment outside their comfort zone and throw them in the water - sink or swim - rather than taking the time to coach them beforehand or during the process. The experienced leaders also teach not only by coaching but also with the lessons of experience they share informally at work (and also formally in the classroom), it’s another thing to take the leap to get up in front of a classroom and possibly be transparent about yourself as a leader who made mistakes in the past or who doesn’t know everything. Interestingly the Leaders use both the Cognitive and Behaviorist approach for making new leaders. 
Cognitive approach is a powerful mechanism that provides the means of knowledge and goes well beyond simple imitation of others.  "It is the result of listening, watching, touching or experiencing".
Whereas the behaviorist approach in psychology has looked to the use of experimental procedures to study behavior in relation to the environment. Behavioral theory in psychology is a very substantial field, how people learn in the real world. To make both Cognitive and behaviorist aspect has been described in gist.

Learner role to be Active,  Self Directed and Self Evaluating
Passive and Dependant
Role to be Facilitator and Presenter
Director and Monitor
Task oriented
Subject oriented
Learning climate to be collaborative
Judgmental and competitive
All Instructional activity to be group oriented and interactive
Directive and subject oriented

Confidence, an important perspective used by Leaders to develop leaders or followers. Many motivation experts make the case of positive thinking and self affirmation as a mean of building confidence. Social Psychology also tells us that identification with leaders and trust are two important reasons why people choose to follow. Simply thinking doesn’t make a reality; anyone genuinely gain confidence not by affirmation but one who practices and achieves the same. In this process, leaders while developing expand their abilities and create genuine self confidence by peeling the Leadership Onion. Leaders develop round picture of their talented employees because they tend to focus on the performance of certain task, relying on competencies and keep investigating behavioral characteristics of an individual. With this, other aspect Leaders keep doing is:
·         For positive accomplishment keep recognizing and rewarding  performers
·         Professional development though competencies
·         Empowering them with both authority and responsibility
·         Expressing confidence both Verbally and non-verbally 
·         Making them learn the ability to understand organization from both  perspective -  internal and external customer
·         Helps in developing positive self image
It goes without saying that good leadership is crucial to any successful business and there are many factors that contributes to good leadership. Whether someone is naturally a good leader or not, anyone can become a good leader – the debate is never ending. The main thrust on analysis was based on primary research from service industry to identify predictors of followers and how they convert in leader. It is possible to suggest intervention strategy to further boost followers in organization. In short, when we’re developing leaders, the culture change is that it is strategically important to the organization’s future that senior leaders spend a chunk of precious time developing those behind them. Research has consistently shown that more engaged employees are hard working, more productive and more likely to stay in an organization than those who are disengaged & when senior don’t show confidence in them. The organizations actually expect same from their leaders. There is no single standard or correct order to implement 3Cs but need to have balance application of all three and when the right balance is used employees will experience a high degree of efficiency, effectiveness, and satisfaction in all assignments. In the end, best statement we have read To lead people, walk beside them - A leader is best, when people barely know he exists, When his work is done, his aim fulfilled, They will say: We did it ourselves." Lao-Tzu Lao-Tsu
Reference Work: 
Milgram, S. (1963).  Behavioral Study of Obedience.  Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 67, 371-378.
Milgram, S. (1965).  Some conditions of obedience and disobedience to authority.  Human Relations, 18, 57-76
Gordon Curphy  - Roelling Followership model
Robert Kelley -
Barbara Kellerman presentation in New Delhi 
Walumbwe FO Lawler, JJAvilio, BJ (2005) Transformational, leadership and work related attitudes. Journal on Leadership and organizational studies.
The Courageous Follower: Standing Up To and For Our Leaders, written by Ira Chaleff 
Anubha is a prolific trainer and consultant carries more than 14 years of rich experience with blue chip organizations like ICICI Bank, Moodys ICL  having  9000+ hours of training experience to her credit.  She specializes in  Behavioral trainings, Quality & Innovation consulting for Workplace transformation. Has numerous accolades to her credit  i.e Train the Trainer (TTT), Six Sigma, Internal & Lead  Auditor, and written research paper on Learning & Talent development  (Merit holder for EHRD THINKER AWARD) and her current paper was accepted by  - AKGIM ICON-ISTD, Creativity and Innovation for Organization Development  2011. Visit for her detail profile at


Emerging Markets and Inclusive Growth

"Change is the window through which the future enters your life." It's all around you, in many types and shapes. You can bring it about yourself or it can come in ways that give you little choice about its what, when, and how. Fighting against change slow it down or divert it, but it won't stop it however. If you wish to succeed in this rapidly changing new world "you must learn to look on change as a friend – one who presents you with an opportunity for growth and improvement." The rate of change in today’s world is constantly increasing. The magnitude of today's environmental, competitive, and global market change is unprecedented. It's a very interesting and exciting world, but it's also volatile and chaotic. This paper is focussing on emerging market & inclusive growth as how company needs to manage change.
Reaching out to the lower strata in emerging markets has long been an admirable social goal and important aspect and, it also represents the biggest business opportunity and helps in growing the smaller market. The rapid change is happening where its imperative for organization finding ways to capture “inclusive growth” by reaching the lowest-income segments as both employees and consumers for their growth. It has been observed and found that the single most important thing to do (around inclusiveness) is to manage change. Organization are focusing the emerging market even if some feels that organization doesn’t have the time and resources to do a large inclusiveness plan, then have to start with something smaller and once you have that first step you see the results from it, will be encouraged to take a step ahead. In both the scenario whether large or small inclusiveness plan leaders role is very vital. His creativity and innovation ability can help an organization to achieve the social growth. Having a small gesture of showing respect for people; promotes fairness and equity; engages the talents, experiences, and capabilities of others; fosters a sense of belonging; works to understand the perspectives of others; and creates opportunities for access can reflect and show great success. An inclusive plan helps organization accomplish their missions with greater power and greater success and managing change. Inclusiveness describes how people from all backgrounds are involved in the organization, how their perspectives are valued, and how their needs are understood. 
With inclusiveness approach we can invite talent from all backgrounds as well as provide equal opportunity for each person to succeed in a way that works for them. With diverse composition leads to learning-centered organizations that value contributions of all people, in all aspects of the organization and all can be achieved by the approach of leader. It is a challenge in current scenario but if strategized can lead to sustaining and support inclusiveness. The main purpose of this paper is to know how creativity and innovation can be used to impact on inclusive growth. The study is focused on what are the current trends in subject and how can further enhance in following area:
·         Communicate more effectively with diverse constituent groups and the public
·         Take advantage of improved problem-solving
·         To  increased creativity and innovation
·         Ability to learn from people at all levels. 
“Inclusive Growth means rapid and sustained poverty reduction and allows people to contribute to and benefit from economic growth”. “To provide the mass of our people to access basic facilities such as health, education, clean drinking water etc. and the governments at different levels have to ensure the provision of these services". 
Share in Output and Employment of different sectors
      Agriculture: 19% in GDP, 53.16% in Employ.
      Industry: 26.3% in GDP, 21.47% in Employ.
      Services: 54.7% in GDP, 25.37% in Employ.
      Employment growth increased in recent years but quality is low.
      Unemployment rate in India was last reported at 9.4% in 2009/10 fiscal year.
      There are 458 million workers in India in 2008-09 
      Out of this 423 million workers are informal/unorganized workers (92%).
      Growth in employment more in unorganized sector. 
      Workers in this sector do not have social security. 
Performance of human development has 6 basic issues
1.      Low level of human development: India’s rank in HDI (human development index has improved from 132 in 1997 to 126 in 2004. Adult literacy rate is 61%.
2.      Slow progress in human development
3.      Significant regional and social disparities
4.      Low levels of social sector expenditures
5.      Low quantity and quality of education and health 
Inclusive growth is a broader concept covers economic, social and cultural aspects of development. Can inclusive growth have synonymous with equitable development? If we analyze there can be complimentarily between growth and equity, as economic growth can create opportunities for wider participation of people and equity is important in itself as well as for as economic growth by harnessing human resource in broader scale by leader.

Inclusive approach is not a new concept for the world. There has been a perception that globalization and liberalization policies which have given more weightage to market have excluded many section of the population. But inclusive approach is much wider concept and goes beyond great subjects. Inclusive growth objectives is related to examine performance, challenges and policies in four inter related elements : agriculture, poverty reduction, decline in regional disparity and human development.
 Inclusive Marketing is an approach that looks at the poor not only as consumers but also as producers/suppliers. This approach offers promise to add economic value to goods and services contributed by the poor. It can therefore impact poverty positively by improving the quality of life of the poor."Pradeep Kashyap, Founder & CEO, MART 
Inclusive growth has long been proclaimed as the key to reaching the lower strata and geographically remote area. But is it used as a major opportunity for businesses by the leaders in emerging markets. Such growth embraces the customers, employees, distributors and intermediaries. To do business in this market, organization are showing great interest and credit to be given to leaders of the companies who are entering in the market, making products and services available not just at low cost but require innovative manufacturing, marketing and delivery solutions. In past it was discouraging and had great challenges. India’s business frontier lies in the thousands of small towns and tiny villages as well as in the many poor sections of cities. Indian manufacturers and organization have the means as well as the motive to reach the hundreds of millions of India’s poor - and has been using innovative business models to drive inclusive growth.  
To better understand how India’s manufacturing sector and various companies is approaching growth through inclusive innovation. A research was carried out by Accenture – a survey with 55 senior executives at a cross-section of companies and analyzed: Manufacturing companies in India have a big advantage over many of their counterparts in other countries. India’s population in the income group of $4 to $20 a day, its emerging middle class, is expected to explode, increasing from 16.5 percent of the population to 49 percent by 2030. The 725 million people who will make $4 to $20 per day in 2030 will coexist with 710 million people earning less than $4 a day. Large consumer demand spread across a range of low- and middle-income segments will provide Indian businesses with opportunities to experiment with different scaling strategies. Even during the economic downturn, India added 10 million mobile connections each month, thanks largely to a surge in new cell-phone accounts among the poor. India’s also benefits from a large pool of entrepreneurial talent. Businesses now also have the Indian government as their ally on this journey. 
Indeed Leadership at the different levels of managing a business brings dimensions to the organization go beyond mere knowledge or basic and also uses essential management skills. Leadership, according to the traditional definition by such classical authors as C. Barnard and A. Selznick, brings something significant to a business: it helps to define the company’s direction over the long-term, and gives sense and coherence to the combination of strategy, policies and action plans, both inside and outside the organization.  
The leaders identify location to work in low-income markets and with the right mix of approaches help to motivate people and in the process create a great culture.  
1)      The Kolkata-based Indian conglomerate ITC has figured out beginning in 2000, the company set up Internet kiosks, or “e-Choupals” (choupal is the Hindi word for “village gathering place”), that give farmers access to information in the local language on the weather and current crop prices, offer guidance on agricultural practices and risk management, and make it easier both to buy farm supplies and sell produce. Some 6,500 of these kiosks can be accessed by more than 4 million Indian farmers who grow coffee beans, rice, soybeans and wheat. ITC has now also deployed advanced analytics and mobile technologies to track data from individual farms so the farmers can improve their pricing, target the right customer segments and improve their logistics, including crop transport and storage.  
2)      ITC-Aashirvaad is India’s premier brand of packaged flour. ITC has attained the lead by building on key attributes of its network of village-based Internet kiosks to create best-in-class products for middle- and high-income households. With the help of its network, largely made up of farmers in 40,000 villages in 10 states, ITC is well positioned to consistently and cost-effectively procure different varieties of high-quality wheat. ITC also returns a portion of the profits from every pack of Aashirvaad product to water conservation efforts. This initiative has already employed 26,000 people, made possible irrigation on 31,000 acres, and implemented soil moisture conservation measures on more than 37,000 acres.  
3)      Indoor Air Pollution takes a heavy toll each year in India, with over 4,00,000 women and children dying prematurely from respiratory illnesses. Shell Foundation reached out to districts of Mysore, Koppal, Udupi and Raichur in the state of Karnataka, India, through Khidki Amma and talked about simple ways to minimize smoke in the kitchen. The "My Kitchen, My Pride" campaign by Shell Foundation in 2008-09 focussed on raising awareness of Indoor Air Pollution in villages. Typically, villagers use poorly designed, wood fired stoves resulting in toxic pollution in their homes. The campaign included lessons at schools, street plays and van campaigns, village gatherings (baithaks) and games. 
4)      "Lijjat Papad-Women and Entrepreneurship" describes the successful entrepreneurial venture set up by seven semi-literate women from a small community in rural India.  The case gives an account of the setting up and functioning of the Sri Mahila Griha Udyog Lijjat Papad (SMGULP). SMGULP was a cooperative system in which women over the age of 18 could become members. Starting humbly, with an initial capital of Rs 80, borrowed from a local money lender and social worker, SMGULP grew phenomenally. In 2002, it had a turnover of Rs 3 billion and exports worth Rs.100 million. It employed 42,000 people in 62 divisions .... 
5)      Godrej & Boyce that was responsible for developing the Chotukool - an innovative cooler designed for the poor - spent a long time in the field to learn about the habits and lives of consumers in low-income groups across rural India. By systematically applying tools such as observation and interview methods, language and image-processing skills, and reflective thinking, the Godrej & Boyce team was able to unearth insights that ordinary surveys would not have divulged. 
6)      Eureka Forbes launched AquaSure, a water-storage purifier, through its traditional distributor-dealer channel in rural markets, sales did not pick up. It then teamed with Basix, a microfinance company, to sell the product. Sales jumped by 20 percent. Eureka Forbes built on Basix’s network of loan officers, who serve as the link between the company and rural populations, providing customer intelligence while also marketing the purifiers to the self-help groups that it meets regularly. 
7)      Marico continues to occupy the number one position in the hair-oil segment across rural and urban low- and middle-income groups. The “low-cost/fail-fast” prototyping model has been key to Marico’s success. This model has helped Marico repeatedly fine-tune product characteristics and packaging of coconut oil to suit the budgets and usage requirements of low income.
Inclusive innovation is sure to become increasingly important as all emerging markets - not just India - begin to find ways to bring poor and rural people into their economies. In the decades to come, those groups will become critical to business growth in much of the world. Inclusive innovations will spin off new technologies, give rise to disruptive business opportunities, and create new avenues for employment and consumption.
The Evian Group defines inclusive growth as a process which entails sustainable and responsible creation -- as well as just distribution of – both wealth and welfare. The notion entails three main pillars that should be mutually reinforcing:
1. Sustainable & responsible business where opportunities for those excluded from current growth models are created and where self empowerment is generated.
2. Social progress and human well-being have to be a pivotal element of the model and should be demonstrated by the right metrics. 
3. Good Governance involves the provision and distribution of adequate public goods. It should sustain and frame robustly the two axes above and provide the necessary secure environment to protect livelihoods. 
C.K Prahalad coined a number of terms in his landmark publication The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid. He referred to what he termed the “aspiring classes” and to the fact that the approach to the market that he advocated would result in what he called “a more inclusive lens of capitalism”. Indeed a more inclusive lens of capitalism is the basic survival kit of the 21st century global economy and global society. 

After profitability, the problem identified is the absence of the right culture for putting inclusive business models into practice and also believe that the talent in their organization is either partly or completely nonaligned with the launch of inclusive models. 
·         First challenge is  human resources policies are not geared to hire and retain employees who are willing to experiment. 
·         Second, companies lack mentors, specifically in the area of innovation. 

It has been observed with the right mix of rewards & recognition and incentives, employees will dedicate them to inclusive growth. New Delhi-based Mankind Pharma, for example, has built a distribution network of committed representatives. The company’s fundamental belief is that medicine should be affordable and accessible to India’s poor and remote populations. 
To reach customers in low-income regions such as Uttar Pradesh effectively, Mankind recruits its field staff from low-income semi-urban and rural populations. According to the company’s CEO, these recruits are entrepreneurial, persevering and innovative. Rather than hire these reps as contractors, Mankind keeps them on its payroll to make them feel a part of the business family. In spite of being very small compared with its global counterparts, Mankind pays its medical representatives some of the best salaries in the industry. It also makes it a point to recognize and reward performance. During the most recent fiscal year, 4,000 of its 6,500 reps were awarded medals for their performance. 
Because of this strategy, Mankind’s distribution network has become its major strength. The company reaches practically every village in India with more than 1,000 residents, and is now one of the country’s fastest-growing pharmaceutical companies, with compound annual growth of 35 percent over the past four years. Its drugs are among the most widely prescribed in India.
the research, identified 4E concept, if effectively use can help in inclusive growth resulting to great reach and profitability. 
Developing strong empathy is the biggest challenge, especially when one is doing business with the lower segment. Difficult task is poor customers or  those living in remote locations are reluctant to express their real views on products because of fear of comparison with peers. Leaders therefore need to devise new ways to build a sharper understanding of customer needs. The organization should ensure there team to spend long time in field just to learn basic habits of poor and make them aware.
Leaders should identify the true entrepreneurs who are focusing in inclusive business and with collaboration (after robust evaluation of entrepreneurs) can make inclusive initiatives more viable. The focus should not only be in growing market but also educating poor in health and safety. 
Leaders should scale up rapidly once launched in emerging markets. A prior planning, pilot run and final launch after incorporating respective changes (if required).  The focus should be in maximum output with minimum inputs i.e The idea is to think big, start small and scale up fast, but with minimum investment. 
4.      EXNOVATION : 
Exnovation does not actually mean propagating a philosophy of not innovating within the organization but in  reality means that once a process has been tested, modulated and finally super-efficiently mastered and bested within the innovative circles of any organization, there should be a critical system that ensures that when this process is replicated across the various offices of the organization, the process is not changed but is implemented in exactly the same manner in which it was made super-efficient; in other words. The logic is that not every individual is competent at innovating – yet, everybody wishes to innovate, which is what can create a doomsday scenario within any organization. 
From senior leaders to new hires, people in the organization must learn to think and breathe inclusion if they are to make it work and should make it part of their culture.
In 2009 the world can be described as composed of two globes. Two globes between which there is no intercourse and no sympathy; that are as ignorant of each other's habits, thoughts, and feelings, as if they were dwellers in different zones, or inhabitants of different planets. 
The rich and the poor…..We need focus on same and to manage as the role of an organization is becoming very vital.
This is clearly unsustainable morally, economically, socially and politically. The great and urgent challenge of the 21st century – especially now as we enter its second decade – is to generate inclusive and sustainable growth and manage better.
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